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Research and suggestion on the reform of oil and gas system

China's oil and gas market reform is lagging behind, and is in a passive position in the global oil and gas situation. Not only the efficiency of oil and gas enterprises has declined, but also the global competitiveness of our economy has been affected. The industrial concentration of oil and gas industry is high, and the integration of upstream and downstream enterprises, and the reform of a certain enterprise, a certain industrial link or a certain area alone, is difficult to achieve the goal of the market to play a decisive role in the allocation of oil and gas resources. Based on the methodology of the market-oriented reform of the whole industrial chain, this report puts forward the reform idea of "one main line, three dimensions and many links". The reform takes the industrial chain as the main line. From the three dimensions of the government, the market and the enterprise, the reform of the main links of the oil and gas industry, including the transfer of mineral rights, the exploration and development, the transportation, circulation and refining of the oil and gas industry, has been carried out to establish a fair competition, open and orderly and market to the allocation of resources. A modern oil and gas market system that plays a decisive role.
1 global oil and gas pattern and China's problems
Since 1950s, oil and gas have gradually replaced coal to become the main energy in the world's energy. Most developed countries have completed the transition from the coal age to the oil and gas era. In the new century, profound changes have taken place in the world energy map. With the success of the North American shale gas revolution and the progress of exploration and development technology, the global oil and gas reserves have increased significantly. In the foreseeable future, oil and gas will continue to occupy a leading position in the world's energy consumption structure.
New China's petrochemical industry has been developing rapidly, providing a strong guarantee for socialist modernization. But looking at the world, China's oil and gas industry is still far from the developed countries in terms of scale, level and efficiency. The main performance is that the cost of oil and gas production and use is high, to a certain extent, the competitiveness of China's economy in the world is weakened to a certain extent; the proportion of oil and gas to the primary energy consumption is low, and it has not yet completed the leap from the coal age to the oil and gas era; the investment in the exploration and development of domestic resources is insufficient and the degree of domestic oil and gas protection is declining year by year; Large oil and gas enterprises are big and not excellent, big and not alive. In recent years, the operating efficiency has fallen sharply, the per capita output is far lower than the foreign enterprises of the same kind; the income distribution of oil and gas is internalized, the income of the state-owned capital is low, the interests of the oil and gas resources are not reflected, and the wealth of oil and gas does not show the share of the whole people. The current situation of oil and gas industry is not conducive to the steady growth of China's economy and the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure.
2 the institutional reasons for restricting the healthy development of the oil and gas industry
After several reforms, China's oil and gas industry has chosen the state company management model of integrated upstream and downstream, and has played an active role in improving the scale of the oil and gas enterprises. However, the integration of the upper and lower reaches of a small number of enterprises also distorts the market price and the relationship between supply and demand, and has become the main reason for the intensification of the supply and demand of oil and gas and the high price. Oil and gas are one of the most restrictive areas in the traditional planned economy period. Even PetroChina, Sinopec and CNOOC ("the three major oil and gas enterprises") have been listed as international companies in the United States and Hong Kong, but up to now, the transformation of the market economy system has not been completed. Oil and gas system is characterized by both planned economy and market economy. It is a typical dual system. The oil and gas industry chain is an incomplete market industrial chain composed of multiple system subtypes.
Mineral rights: a small number of enterprises get oil and gas blocks without compensation, and a large number of mining areas are occupied. At present, tendering is widely used internationally to transfer oil and gas mineral rights, and strict rights and obligations are imposed on mining rights holders. China has long implemented the "application first" mode of mineral rights transfer, and the three major oil and gas enterprises have obtained the exploration rights of most oil and gas blocks in China without compensation. The cost of possession of oil and gas is low, and the enterprises neither invest nor exploit a large number of mining areas, which restrict the improvement of the domestic oil and gas supply capacity, and fail to fully reflect the principle of the state's rights to the owners of resources and the right to use the mineral rights for enterprises. In our country, under the special franchise system of oil and gas exploration and development and the franchise system of foreign cooperation, in addition to a few state-owned oil and gas enterprises, other kinds of market bodies are not allowed to enter the field of exploration and development, limiting the opening of the field of oil and gas and restricting the development of the upstream market.
Pipeline network: Construction and operation is not open to the third party and lacks effective supervision. Since 1980s, most developed countries have carried out the reform of netting and deregulation. The construction and operation of China's oil and gas pipeline network facilities is still concentrated on a few large central enterprises, and the operation of vertical integration is carried out. The pipeline networks of different companies are not interconnected with each other, some places are overlapping, empty and wasteful, and some places are inadequate in construction and saturated in operation. Enterprises take advantage of market dominance, do not open to third parties, do not allow social capital to enter, and consumers lack the right to choose. The state lacks effective supervision over the price, construction and operation of pipeline transportation. The city gas pipeline network is usually operated by a company and has the same problem with the national oil and gas pipeline network. With the gradual diversification of oil and gas upstream and downstream market entities, the demand for oil and gas pipeline network reform has become increasingly prominent.
Circulation: individual state-owned enterprises monopolize and form market barriers. Crude oil is currently the largest free trade commodity in the world, but it is still licensed by a few enterprises in our country. In the import link, China still carries out state trading management of crude oil while allowing a certain number of non state trading. PetroChina, Sinopec, CNOOC, Zhuhai Zhen Rong and Sinochem Group,

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