gasifier,coal gasifier,gas generator,coal gasification,gas station,syn gas,hot gas,clean gas,bio gas,crude gas,cold gas,gasifiers,coal gasifiers,clean coal technology
Yuan Weijun 1 Zhu Pengcheng 2 LI Jian-sheng 1
(1 Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Technology Equipment Co., Ltd., Tangshan, 063020; 2 Yantai Changyu Glass Co., Ltd., Yantai, Shandong, 264002)
Abstract: A comparative analysis of several commonly used fuel in the combustion produces various stages of the application process for CO2 emissions and energy consumption indicators under glass melting furnace, a variety of fuel per unit mass of molten glass melting CO2 emissions were accounted and compared. Pointed out that the use of advanced energy-saving technology to reduce fuel consumption and reduce the power consumption of the fuel application process, as well as the development of advanced coal gasification technology, a reasonable choice of fuel type, can effectively control the glass industry CO2 emissions.
Gas furnace Keywords: glass; fuel; combustion; electricity consumption; CO2 emissions
THE APPLICATION OF COMMONLY USED FUEL IN THE GLASS PRODUCTION AND CO2 EMISSION
YUAN Weijun1 ZHU Pengcheng2 LI Jiansheng1
(1.Tangshan Keyuan Environmental Protection Tech. & Equipment Co., Ltd. TangshanofHebei 063020; 2.Yantai Changyu Glass Co., Ltd. Yantai Shandong 264002)
Abstract: Comparative analysis of the CO2 emissions of several commonly used fuel in the combustion process at all stages and calculated and comparison of CO2 emissions when each fuel melts unit mass of liquid glass according to the energy consumption in glass melting furnace. Indicated that the use of advanced energy saving technology, reducing fuel consumption, lower power consumption, as well as the development of advanced coal gasification technology, a reasonable choice of fuel type, can effectively control CO2 emissions in the glass industry.
Keywords: glass; fuel; combustion; power consumption; CO2 emission
Chinese glass production and consumption ranks first in the world for many years, in 2009 from January to April, China's flat glass production exceeds 180 million weight cases, hollow glass, household glass products, glass fiber yarn output reached 7,387,700 square m, 3.521 million tons, 953,100 tons. Although the country's glass industry in terms of size and yield rapid development, but in terms of the overall level of equipment, with the world's advanced level there are still a large gap, only a glass melting furnace thermal efficiency, with the level of developed countries on a difference of 20 - 30%, in recent years, energy consumption in the glass production costs have accounted for about 50%, fuel consumption per unit of product is huge.
Considerations based on the survival and development of glass production enterprises in their production systems for energy saving at the same time, the application of a variety of fuels have also been many attempts and practice. Companies have chosen fuel in a careful accounting of the cost of their application at the same time, should inflicts SO2, NOx, CO2 and other pollutants systematic evaluation, in which CO2 is the main greenhouse gas emissions from gas, significant emissions will lead to global warming, if not controlled, the future will devastating human catastrophe. In recent years, as China's rapid economic development, the rapid growth of energy consumption, CO2 emissions rose sharply synchronized, the Netherlands research organization "Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency" (MNP) released data show that in 2007 China's CO2 emissions 6720000000 tons, accounting for the world's total emissions 1/4, CO2 emission reduction pressure is huge.
1. Application of glass manufacturers fuel [1,2,3]
Currently Chinese glass manufacturers applied more types of fuel, the largest proportion of heavy oil applications, then there natural gas, coke oven gas and furnace gas and other gaseous fuels, as oil prices continue to soar, some companies began to coal tar as alternative fuel heavy oil, petroleum coke have recently started to become another alternative to heavy fuel options.
To float glass furnace, for example, the end of 2007, China has built a float glass furnace 180, 140-150 seat design which is heavy fuel, the rest mostly natural gas, coke oven gas and producer gas for the design of fuel , the current heavy glass melting furnace, about 30 or so have tried or are coal tar as an alternative fuel, while a few furnace began to replace heavy petroleum coke experimental applications.
2. Fuel CO2 emissions from the application process
Fuel application process can be divided into fuel pretreatment process and fuel combustion process, the whole process needs to consume extra water, electricity, gas and other auxiliary materials, etc. These water, electricity, gas and other auxiliary materials production and transportation process also the presence of CO2 emissions, the glass enterprises, water vapor and more from the furnace produces waste heat utilization system, and fuel applications, the external water supply and other auxiliary materials applications of less, for the sake of convenience of calculation, fuel application process CO2 emissions accounting, generally only consider the process of indirect CO2 emissions of electricity, fuel and its combustion process CO2 emissions caused by burning themselves.
Indirect CO2 emissions caused by electricity companies, their emissions intensity of fuel and power industry structure, the level of energy efficiency and other factors related to the structure of primary energy by the impact of China's coal-fired power industry as high as 83%, coal accounted for the proportion of China's coal yield more than 50%, while the energy efficiency of China's power industry is relatively backward, the national average coal consumption was 374gce / (kW.h), each power supply 1 kW.h about 0.845kg CO2 emissions .
2.1 CO2 emissions from fuel pretreatment process
As mining and processing technology differences, and differences between fuel transport distance, natural gas, heavy oil, coal tar, petroleum coke and coal mining, processing and transportation energy difference between the larger, CO2 emissions intensity accordingly there is a big difference, as ease of calculation, not to consider the fuel in the mining, processing and transportation of CO2 emissions caused by the process.
Producer gas generally produced by the enterprises themselves, as fuel pretreatment process, including gas production, purification and distribution in the whole process; coke oven gas and natural gas from the gas source plant factory piped to the application, generally no pretreatment power consumption ; heavy oil and coal tar applications, which require heat insulation and spray, heat insulation of steam consumed by the factory supply, not included in the accounting category, the pretreatment process mainly for fuel atomization electricity consumption; petroleum coke consumption pretreatment process by crushing, conveying and injection processes consume. Accordingly accounting calories per GJ fuel pretreatment process CO2 emissions in Table 1.
Table 1 calorie per GJ fuel pretreatment process CO2 emissions
2.2 CO2 emissions from fuel combustion process [5,6]
2.2.1 CO2 emissions from fuel combustion itself
Combustion process, the fuel carbon in the combustible components substantially to CO2 emissions, only a very small amount of converted CO emissions, the fuel used glass composition, calorific value and combustion CO2 emissions Table 2 and Table 3, for the calculation convenience, the table lists for each type of fuel is only one component ratio.
Table 2 Common fuel gas composition, calorific value and combustion CO2 emissions
N2 or other
Table 3 Common liquid (solid) of fuel elements, and the combustion heat value of CO2 emissions
Elemental analysis %
2.2.2 CO2 emissions from combustion of auxiliary systems
CO2 emissions from fuel application process, in addition to fuel its own CO2 released when burning, it also includes the process of fuel combustion, combustion air supply and flue gas emissions caused by electricity consumption CO2 emissions from fuel combustion auxiliary systems commonly used in electricity consumption and CO2 emissions See Table 4.
Table 4 auxiliary systems commonly used fuel combustion power consumption and CO2 emissions (GJ-1 gas)
Combustion air demand（m3）
Combustion air blower power consumption(kW.h）
Induced draft fan power consumption（kW.h）
Note: The combustion air pressure to take 2500Pa; take the wind pressure 1000Pa; flue gas temperature taken 250 ℃; fan system efficiency 0.75; heavy oil and coal tar oil atomizing air volume to take 4.28m3/kg.
2.3 Fuel application process CO2 emissions
In summary, the application process fuel CO2 emissions from fuel pretreatment process and fuel combustion processes, including CO2 emissions from fuel combustion process, but also by the self-combustion and combustion auxiliary fuel system to produce, process their CO2 emissions and total emissions See Table 5.
Table 5 Common application process fuel CO2 emissions (GJ-1 gas)
CO2 output in pretreatment（kg）
CO2 output in combustion（kg）
CO2 combustion in auxiliary combustion（kg）
Total emissions of CO2 （kg）
3. Glass melting process fuel CO2 emissions
According to the literature  provides a different fuel glass furnace unit energy consumption indicators empirical formula, the literature  provides for heavy oil and coal tar compare actual consumption data, literature [3,7] for petroleum coke and fuel oil composition, properties, etc. comparative analysis, and petroleum coke and pulverized coal combustion characteristics compared to melting capacity of 400t / d of the glass melting furnace, for example, to determine the glass melting process, different fuels unit product energy consumption and CO2 emissions shown in Table 6.
Table 6 400t / d glass furnace glass melting process unit energy consumption of different fuels and CO2 emissions
（MJ/kg Glass liquid）
CO2 emissions（g/kgGlass liquid）
(1) China's glass industry as a whole equipped with the world's advanced level of water big gap between the large energy consumption per unit of product, improve glass melting furnace thermal efficiency, reducing fuel consumption, CO2 emissions reduction is the most effective way.
(2) application process fuel CO2 emissions, CO2 from combustion of the fuel itself, followed by pre-processing and combustion of fuel consumption generated by auxiliary systems indirect CO2 emissions, accounting for about 1-6% of total emissions, adopt advanced energy-saving technology to reduce power consumption of the process can be effective in reducing CO2 emissions.
(3) the glass melting process, the various fuels coke oven gas CO2 emission intensity per unit of product the lowest, followed by natural gas, heavy oil, coal tar, petroleum coke and coal gas furnace, and its CO2 emissions per unit of product intensity ratio of 1: 1.2:1.5:1.7:1.9:2.3, a reasonable choice of fuel type, is conducive to substantial CO2 emissions.
(4) coke oven gas CO2 emission intensity per unit of product is low, due to its high calorific value, higher hydrogen content of combustible ingredients, combined with China's primary energy structure of the situation, the development of advanced coal gasification technology to produce high calorific value, hydrogen-rich The artificial gas, in line with China's energy security and greenhouse gas reduction strategies.
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